Live Covid-19
United States 93,910,150
Cases: 93,910,150
Deaths: 1,058,738
Recovered: 89,039,885
Active: 3,811,527
India 44,161,899
Cases: 44,161,899
Deaths: 526,730
Recovered: 43,499,659
Active: 135,510
France 34,079,658
Cases: 34,079,658
Deaths: 152,711
Recovered: 33,015,897
Active: 911,050
Brazil 34,018,371
Cases: 34,018,371
Deaths: 680,051
Recovered: 32,731,706
Active: 606,614
Germany 31,228,314
Cases: 31,228,314
Deaths: 144,858
Recovered: 29,622,900
Active: 1,460,556
United Kingdom 23,368,899
Cases: 23,368,899
Deaths: 185,052
Recovered: 22,883,651
Active: 300,196
Italy 21,325,402
Cases: 21,325,402
Deaths: 173,249
Recovered: 20,097,986
Active: 1,054,167
South Korea 20,544,420
Cases: 20,544,420
Deaths: 25,292
Recovered: 18,983,817
Active: 1,535,311
Russia 18,730,561
Cases: 18,730,561
Deaths: 382,786
Recovered: 18,048,076
Active: 299,699
Turkey 16,295,817
Cases: 16,295,817
Deaths: 99,678
Recovered: 15,875,121
Active: 321,018
Japan 14,248,541
Cases: 14,248,541
Deaths: 33,663
Recovered: 12,156,152
Active: 2,058,726
Spain 13,266,184
Cases: 13,266,184
Deaths: 111,094
Recovered: 12,760,955
Active: 394,135
Vietnam 11,349,223
Cases: 11,349,223
Deaths: 43,094
Recovered: 9,982,345
Active: 1,323,784
Australia 9,658,112
Cases: 9,658,112
Deaths: 12,335
Recovered: 9,362,715
Active: 283,062
Argentina 9,560,307
Cases: 9,560,307
Deaths: 129,369
Recovered: 9,330,792
Active: 100,146
Netherlands 8,354,641
Cases: 8,354,641
Deaths: 22,528
Recovered: 8,214,723
Active: 117,390
Iran 7,443,801
Cases: 7,443,801
Deaths: 142,515
Recovered: 7,112,890
Active: 188,396
Mexico 6,857,470
Cases: 6,857,470
Deaths: 328,320
Recovered: 6,034,876
Active: 494,274
Colombia 6,278,998
Cases: 6,278,998
Deaths: 141,075
Recovered: 6,096,946
Active: 40,977
Indonesia 6,249,403
Cases: 6,249,403
Deaths: 157,113
Recovered: 6,042,657
Active: 49,633
Poland 6,094,868
Cases: 6,094,868
Deaths: 116,660
Recovered: 5,335,873
Active: 642,335
Portugal 5,359,624
Cases: 5,359,624
Deaths: 24,664
Recovered: 5,228,001
Active: 106,959
Ukraine 5,026,496
Cases: 5,026,496
Deaths: 108,727
Recovered: 4,912,069
Active: 5,700
Austria 4,791,014
Cases: 4,791,014
Deaths: 19,200
Recovered: 4,689,678
Active: 82,136
North Korea 4,772,813
Cases: 4,772,813
Deaths: 74
Recovered: 4,772,739
Active: 0
Taiwan 4,754,268
Cases: 4,754,268
Deaths: 9,255
Recovered: 4,300,651
Active: 444,362
Malaysia 4,708,552
Cases: 4,708,552
Deaths: 36,026
Recovered: 4,626,756
Active: 45,770
Thailand 4,607,451
Cases: 4,607,451
Deaths: 31,633
Recovered: 4,554,502
Active: 21,316
Israel 4,598,476
Cases: 4,598,476
Deaths: 11,433
Recovered: 4,550,603
Active: 36,440
Greece 4,474,616
Cases: 4,474,616
Deaths: 31,377
Recovered: 4,353,814
Active: 89,425

Provisioning of Broadband Connectivity in Rural Areas using Television White Space

Provisioning of Broadband Connectivity in Rural Areas using Television White Space

ABSTRACT

The current global move to switch from analog to digital Television has opened up unused channels within the 470MHz to 890MHz called Television White Space.  Television White Space radios offer broadband speeds over several kilometers and their signal can travel through obstacles such as buildings, trees and terrains. Television White Space is free to use and affords a good opportunity to supplement the existing licensed spectrum to ease the spectrum scarcity. Unfortunately, rural areas in Nigeria are predominantly unconnected as it is not viable for operators to provide broadband access. This research was aimed at improving the quality of service in a mobile network for the rural areas through the provisioning of broadband connectivity using Television White Space technology. In carrying out this objective, a preliminary measurement within a selected rural community was carried out to ascertain the speed and level of the broadband connectivity available within the community. A spectrum occupancy measurement was done to identify the low occupancy bands suitable for deploying Television White Space technology. The result of the measurement carried out showed that there is an average of 26 unoccupied channels, 5 fully occupied channels and 3 incomplete occupied channels in the TV channel allocated to a TV station. This indicates that there are lots of spectrum utilization opportunities for the provision of broadband internet services. A terrain-based propagation model was developed to select the best sites for both the Television White Space base station and the Client premise equipment for maximum impact. Thereafter, the Capacity and the number of radios required for the deployment of the Television White Space Network were determined.

Keywords: Television White Space, Broadband Connectivity, Spectrum Occupancy, Propagation model, Capacity Planning

Authorship
1Onoh G.N., 2Arinze S. N., 3Abonyi D. O. and 4Okafor P.U.

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