Live Covid-19
United States 93,910,150
Cases: 93,910,150
Deaths: 1,058,738
Recovered: 89,039,885
Active: 3,811,527
India 44,161,899
Cases: 44,161,899
Deaths: 526,730
Recovered: 43,499,659
Active: 135,510
France 34,079,658
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Recovered: 33,015,897
Active: 911,050
Brazil 34,018,371
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Deaths: 680,051
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Active: 606,614
Germany 31,228,314
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Recovered: 29,622,900
Active: 1,460,556
United Kingdom 23,368,899
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Active: 300,196
Italy 21,325,402
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South Korea 20,544,420
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Russia 18,730,561
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Turkey 16,295,817
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Vietnam 11,349,223
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Argentina 9,560,307
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Active: 100,146
Netherlands 8,354,641
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Active: 117,390
Iran 7,443,801
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Mexico 6,857,470
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Colombia 6,278,998
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Indonesia 6,249,403
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Poland 6,094,868
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Portugal 5,359,624
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Active: 106,959
Ukraine 5,026,496
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Deaths: 108,727
Recovered: 4,912,069
Active: 5,700
Austria 4,791,014
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Deaths: 19,200
Recovered: 4,689,678
Active: 82,136
North Korea 4,772,813
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Deaths: 74
Recovered: 4,772,739
Active: 0
Taiwan 4,754,268
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Deaths: 9,255
Recovered: 4,300,651
Active: 444,362
Malaysia 4,708,552
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Deaths: 36,026
Recovered: 4,626,756
Active: 45,770
Thailand 4,607,451
Cases: 4,607,451
Deaths: 31,633
Recovered: 4,554,502
Active: 21,316
Israel 4,598,476
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Deaths: 11,433
Recovered: 4,550,603
Active: 36,440
Greece 4,474,616
Cases: 4,474,616
Deaths: 31,377
Recovered: 4,353,814
Active: 89,425

Experimental Implementation of 2-Element Antenna Localization System for Small Cell Location Planning of Hetnets

Experimental Implementation of 2-Element Antenna Localization System for Small Cell Location Planning of Hetnets

ABSTRACT

In cellular heterogeneous networks, well-targeted small cells increase capacity, enhance coverage, offload traffic from the existing macro cell and ensure balanced load in the network. This paper experimentally demonstrates the use of a 2-element localization system for the purpose of small cell location planning. A centralized localization system that utilizes a differential 2-element antenna array to perform user localization and identify positions for small cell deployment is presented. The base station, which can also be the network gateway, is connected to two collinear antennas separated by λ/2. The relative phase of each antenna was varied using a phase shifter. The combined output of the two antennas was used to create sum and difference radiation patterns, and to steer the antenna radiation pattern to other angular positions. The system applies a simple RSSI based algorithm to calculate user AoA, range and user population per sector of the network to determine optimum positions for small cell deployment. Experiment with seventeen users in a LOS WiFi environment showed accurate angle of-arrival estimation and a range estimation with MAE of 2.19m relative to the BS. User clusters and positions for small cell deployment were correctly located.

Keywords: Antenna Array; Antenna Radiation Patterns; RSSI; Azimuthal Angle; Distance Measurement; Heterogeneous Networks; 2-Element Antenna; Localization System; Small Cell Location Planning

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Authorship

Dr. Dorathy Obianuju Abonyi has a PhD and a Master of Science (MSc) degrees in Electronic and Electrical Engineering from The University of Sheffield, United Kingdom as well as a Master of Engineering (M.Eng) and Bachelor of Engineering (B.Eng) degrees of the Enugu State University of Science and Technology (ESUT), Enugu, Nigeria. She is currently a Lecturer at the Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, ESUT. Her area of interest includes wireless communications, antenna, Radio wave propagation and Internet of Things (IoT).

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